Theatre Owners Booking Association
- (TOBA)Established in 1912 by S. H. Dudley, this theatre chain aimed at supplying year-round employment for African American performers, although they eventually came to see TOBA as an acronym for "tough on black actors." By 1916, Dudley had 28 theatres in the chain. In 1919, theatres managed by whites were admitted. Dubbed the "Chitlin Circuit," it was criticized for paying small salaries to all performers except headliners. The TOBA folded during the Great Depression.
The Historical Dictionary of the American Theater. James Fisher.
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